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Introduction to Cloud Computing
### Linh B. Ngo, Ph.D. - Email: LNGO at WCUPA dot EDU - Office: 144 UNA (25 University Avenue) - Office Hours: - MT 2:00PM to 4:00PM - W 11:00AM to 12:00PM
### Course Descriptions This course provides an introductory overview to the technologies that enable cloud computing. Topics covered include basic concepts about cloud computing, and advanced technical concepts regarding virtualization, containerization, and orchestration.
### Important Dates - Tue, Jan 29, 2019: Last Day of Add/Drop - Mon, Mar 11-17, 2019: Spring Break - Tue, Mar 26, 2019: Last Day of Course Withdrawal - Tue, May 09, 2019: 6:00PM to 8:00PM FINAL EXAM
### Prerequisites
### Textbook
### Software requirements As laptop style and model can vary, the following common (and free) software environment will be enforced for all lectures and programming assignments: - Virtual Environment: Oracle VirtualBox - Other software packages will be specified and installed inside the virtual OS as needed.
### Git - The class materials, including source codes, will be disseminated via Git. Being able to use Git is a critical skill for most, if not all software developers and/or IT professionals. There are many tutorials already available online for Git. Some of the more helpful ones include Github's, "the simple guide", and Atlassian's); - It would be a mistake if you just attempt to access the class materials via the web browser. "This is a mistake. Just learn Git. The command line interface is faster and more powerful, and you're going to need to learn it at some point in your life. Why not today?" - Dr. Jacob Sorber, Clemson University.
### Course Materials - Lecture slides and example codes will be available online via links inside the course' D2L page - Links to papers on subjects we will be discussing in class will also be listed and/or embedded in the slides. - West Chester University maintains extensive licensed products to academic publishers such as ACM, IEEE, Elsevier, and Springer, and many of the papers required for this course will be available through the library's online database. - Google Scholar is another excellent source for downloading preprint or open-source versions of papers.
### Grading Grades will be based on the following distribution: - Assignments: 60% - 1 individual assignment (15%) - 1 project-based assignments (45%): 3 deliverables at 15% each - Exam: - Exam 1: 15% - Exam 2: 10% (Comprehensive) - Quiz: 10% - Participation: 5%
### Letter grades | Number | 100-93 | 92-90 | 89-87 | 86-83 | 82-80 | 79-77 | 76-73 | 72-70 | 69-67 | 66-63 | 62-60 | <= 59 | | ------ | ------ | ----- | ----- | ----- | ----- | ----- | ----- | ----- | ----- | ----- | ----- | ----- | | Letter | A | A- | B+ | B | B- | C+ | C | C- | D+ | D | D- | F |
### Grading Appeals Mistakes occasionally happen during the grading process. If you think a mistake has been made regarding your grades, you should send me an email with detailed justification within one week of the date the grades are available. No changes on grades will be made after one week from the date the grades are posted.
### Participation - Participation accounts for 5% of your grade. - This part of your grade will be determined by: - whether or not you show up to class and office hours, and - how actively you participate (ask questions, make comments, contribute to activities) during class. - Participation grades will be assigned in a coarsely manner: - 100% to students who are fully engaged active participants, - 50% to students who are nominally engaged (physically there and willing to participate when asked to), and - 0% for students who really aren't engaged (trying to hide).
### Office Hours - Office hours are an opportunity to reinforce course topics either one-on-one or in small groups. If you are unable to attend during the posted time slots, I am happy to make an appointment.
### Attendance Policy - Attendance is critical to the success of students in this class. - We will take note of who attends, including occasionally using attendance check in place of a quiz score. - If you miss a class, you are responsible for obtaining lecture notes, handouts, and homework assignments from fellow students. - If the instructor is late for class, please wait 20 minutes before leaving.
### Excused Absences Policy for University-Sanctioned Event - Students are advised to carefully read and comply with the excused absences policy for university-sanctioned events contained in the WCU Undergraduate Catalog. - In particular, please note that the "responsibility for meeting academic requirements rests with the student," that this policy does not excuse students from completing required academic work, and that professors can require a "fair alternative" to attendance on those days that students must be absent from class in order to participate in a University-Sanctioned Event.
### Late Work - Without prior approval from the instructors, late homework assignments will not be accepted but will be assigned a grade of zero. - Unless accompanied with a valid medical or University excuse, all late submissions will be penalized. - A make-up for the exams will be given only with a valid medical or University excuse.
### Academic Integrity It is the responsibility of each student to adhere to the university's standards for academic integrity. Violations of academic integrity include any act that violates the rights of another student in academic work, that involves misrepresentation of your own work, or that disrupts the instruction of the course.
### Academic Integrity Other violations include (but are not limited to): - cheating on assignments or examinations; - plagiarizing, which means copying any part of another's work and/or using ideas of another and presenting them as one's own without giving proper credit to the source; - selling, purchasing, or exchanging of term papers; - falsifying of information; and - using your own work from one class to fulfill the assignment for another class without significant modification. Proof of academic misconduct can result in the automatic failure and removal from this course.
### Academic Integrity For questions regarding Academic Integrity, Sexual Harassment, or the Student Code of Conduct, students are encouraged to refer to the "Other' Menu of the Computer Science web page www.cs.wcupa.edu/, the Undergraduate Catalog, the Ram's Eye View, and the University website at www.wcupa.edu.
### Disability Accommodations - To know more about West Chester University’s Services for Students with Disabilities (OSSD), contact the OSSD which is located at 223 Lawrence Center. The OSSD hours of Operation are Monday Friday 8:30 a.m. 4:30 p.m. Their phone number is 610-436-2564, their fax number is 610-436-2600, their email address is ossd@wcupa.edu, and their website is at www.wcupa.edu/ussss/ossd. - If you have a disability that requires accommodations under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), please present your letter of accommodations to OSSD as soon as possible so that OSSD can support your success in an informed manner. Accommodations cannot be granted retroactively.
### Title IX Statement - West Chester University and its faculty are committed to assuring a safe and productive educational environment for all students. In order to meet this commitment and to comply with Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 and guidance from the Office for Civil Rights, the University requires faculty members to report incidents of sexual violence shared by students to the University's Title IX Coordinator, Ms. Lynn Klingensmith. - The only exceptions to the faculty member's reporting obligation are when incidents of sexual violence are communicated by a student during a classroom discussion, in a writing assignment for a class, or as part of a University-approved research project. Faculty members are obligated to report sexual violence or any other abuse of a student who was, or is, a child (a person under 18 years of age) when the abuse allegedly occurred to the person designated in the University protection of minors policy. Information regarding the reporting of sexual violence and the resources that are available to victims of sexual violence is set forth at the webpage for the Office of Social Equity at http://www.wcupa.edu/_admin/social.equity/.
### Title IX Statement - Ms. Lynn Klingensmith is the West Chester University Title IX Coordinator and is also the Director of Social Equity. She can be reached at 610-436-2433 or by email at LKlingensmith@wcupa.edu and can connect you to resources both on and on campus, as well as provide information about the processes related to cases of sexual misconduct. - West Chester University community members also have a right to report acts of sexual misconduct to the Office of Civil Rights. They can be contacted at: The Wanamaker Building, 100 Penn Square East, Suite 515, Philadelphia, PA 19107-3323, (215) 656-8541, OCR.Philadelphia@ed.gov
### Emergency Preparedness - All students are encouraged to sign up for the University’s free WCU ALERT service, which delivers official WCU emergency text messages directly to your cell phone. - For more information, visit www.wcupa.edu/wcualert. To report an emergency, call the Department of Public Safety at 610-436-3311.
### Electronic Mail Policy - It is expected that faculty, staff, and students activate and maintain regular access to University provided e-mail accounts. - Official university communications, including those from your instructor, will be sent through your university e-mail account. - You are responsible for accessing that mail to be sure to obtain official University communications. Failure to access will not exempt individuals from the responsibilities associated with this course.
### Instructor Email Policy - For individual issue, it is best to contact me via email. I check my email frequently during normal working hours (9-5) on weekdays, and I will try to respond quickly (hopefully the same day). I do also check email on weekends and evenings, but not nearly as frequently (almost never on Sundays). As a result, you should expect longer delays during these times. - If you send me an assignment-related email right before a deadline, I may not answer it in time to be helpful.
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Introduction to Cloud Computing
### Cluster Computing - Prior to 1996, to achieve better computing performance (better speed, more memory, more storage ...), people relied on special-purpose computers (Cray, AIX). - In 1996, the Beowulf model was developed, enabling construction of **computing clusters**: - Provide better overall performance than average computers, - Are designed by connecting individual standard computers (commodity off-the-shelves). - Highly scalable (potentially infinite)
### The Building is the Limit - **Scaling out**: Adding additional computers of similar performance to an existing cluster of computers. - Simple, inexpensive approach - Limited by how much space available - Limited by AC and power capacity
### The Funding is the Limit - **Scaling up**: Replacing existing computers in a cluster with better, fast computers - More expensive - More technical challenge to ensure stable performance
### Difference in perspectives - Academic: How can I get more performance with little funding that I have? - Industry: How can I avoid investing money into fixed cost when I only need bursts of performance?
### Next generations of cluster computing - Grid Computing - Cloud Computing
### Grid Computing - Bring together computing resources (clusters of computers) from geographically distributed locations. - Individual resources are under separate administrative domains. - Computing resources are highly heterogeneous (and the users have to take this into account). - Keywords: sharing, collaboration, fine-grained access control, delegation ...
### Grid Computing - Started out as academic research project (U Chicago + U Southern California). - Enables sharing of geographically different reources through **virtual organizations**. - Computing resources are highly heterogeneous (and the users have to take this into account). - A computing job with individual disjoint and asynchronous tasks can send these tasks over different resources in a grid computing federation. - Suitable for academic research, not suitable for industry.
### Cloud Computing - Bring together computing resources from geographically distributed locations. - Difference in administrative domains should be transparent to users. - The heterogeneity of computing resources should be transparent to users. - Any type of computing job should be executable in a cloud computing environment.
### Grid and Cloud ![grid-cloud](https://www.cs.wcupa.edu/lngo/assets/images/csc-496-2/syllabus_slide/grid-cloud.PNG)
### Cloud Computing: Early Definition *A computing cloud is a set of network enabled services, providing scalable, QoS guaranteed, normally personalized, inexpensive computing infrastructures on demand, which could be accessed in a simple and pervasive way* Wang L, Von Laszewski G, Younge A, He X, Kunze M, Tao J, Fu C. Cloud computing: a perspective study. New Generation Computing. 2010 Apr 1;28(2):137-46. Cloud computing is too complex to be defined by just a sentence.
### Cloud Computing: Formal Definition by NIST - Cloud computing is a model for enabling ubiquitous, convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (e.g., networks, servers, storage, applications, and services) that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction. This cloud model is composed of five essential characteristics, three service models, and four deployment models. - https://csrc.nist.gov/publications/detail/sp/800-145/final - How do we read this definition?
### Cloud Computing: Formal Definition by NIST Cloud computing is a model for enabling ubiquitous, convenient, **on-demand** network **access** to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (e.g., networks, servers, storage, applications, and services) that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction. This cloud model is composed of five essential characteristics, three service models, and four deployment models.
### Cloud Computing: Formal Definition by NIST Cloud computing is a model for enabling ubiquitous, convenient, **on-demand** network **access** to a **shared pool** of **configurable** computing **resources** (e.g., networks, servers, storage, applications, and services) that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction. This cloud model is composed of five essential characteristics, three service models, and four deployment models.
### Cloud Computing: Formal Definition by NIST Cloud computing is a model for enabling ubiquitous, convenient, **on-demand** network **access** to a **shared pool** of **configurable** computing **resources** (e.g., networks, servers, storage, applications, and services) that can be **rapidly provisioned** and released with **minimal management** effort or service provider interaction. This cloud model is composed of five essential characteristics, three service models, and four deployment models.
### Cloud Computing: Five Essential Characteristics - On-demand self-service - Broad network access - Resource pooling - Rapid elasticity - Measured service
### Cloud Trend ![grid-cloud](https://www.cs.wcupa.edu/lngo/assets/images/csc-496-2/syllabus_slide/cloud-trend.PNG)
### Cloud Computing: Three Service Models - Software as a Service (SaaS) - Platform as a Service (PaaS) - Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS)
### Cloud Providers ![grid-cloud](https://www.cs.wcupa.edu/lngo/assets/images/csc-496-2/syllabus_slide/cloud-major-providers.PNG)
### Cloud Computing: Four Deployment Models - Private Cloud - Community Cloud - Public Cloud - Hybrid Cloud