jQuery / AJAX

JavaScript Basics

Modern web applications often feature specialized effects and attractive user interfaces accomplished by JavaScript code. Writing in JavaScript directly is tedious and error-prone; a significant problem is dealing with browser differences. Generally it it preferable to write JavaScript using a client-side toolkit, because it has the abilities to: As can be expected, there are quite a few such toolkits, for example: Dojo, Prototype, MochiKit, Google Web Toolkit, AJILE, Echo, jQuery, MooTools, qooxdoo, Rico, Scriptaculous, YUI.

AJAX Programming

AJAX is an acronym for Asynchronous Javascript And Xml. The most important point about AJAX is that it uses JavaScript to make Asynchronous server-side activations without doing browser reload. An asynchronous server-side activation proceeds while the browser remains available for normal event handling. AJAX programming gallows web applications to behave more like standard graphical user interface applications.

When information is sent back from the server side activation, it is the job of the JavaScript handler to decide what to do with it. Often it is displayed as a whole within an element. There are many circumstances in which it is useful to send back structured information, whose parts can be identified and used. The X in AJAX signifies that XML information can be sent back and parsed in JavaScript in order to extract the components. In reality it is much more common and simpler to retrieve and process information in JSON (JavaScript Object Notation) format.

JavaScript Debugging

JavaScript used in any setting is difficult to debug. In many cases when something is wrong, nothing at all happens, i.e., there is no feedback whatsoever about what is missing or how to fix it. Firefox, for example, provides an Error Console to show errors, but the "mistake" may not technically be a JavaScript error.

One common debugging need is to ensure that some portion of code is actually being executed when you think it should be executed. A simplistic technique is to insert an alert statement:
alert( "SOME MESSAGE" );
to ensure that execution does in fact reach this point in the code. The problem is that the alert blocks the browser and can only display values of simple scalar variables.

A significant improvement is to be able to use a debugging Console which shows you the AJAX calls made, reports errors, and is able to log messages without blocking the browser. A good choice is the Firebug tool available in Firefox and Chrome. With this, you can insert logging statements like this into your code:
if (window.console) console.log( ... )
The "if (window.console)" means "if the browser has a console." It is necessary to avoid errors if the browser used does not have a console installed. Additionally Firebug provides an HTML view which displays JavaScript-generated code not visible generated which is not viewable as source code.

Firebug Lite for Chrome

I would recommend installing this for Google Chrome:
Firebug Lite
Open the link in Chrome per se, and the installer is available right from this site.

JavaScript DOM

JavaScript programming bears strong resemblance to Java programming. One strong difference is that JavaScript programming is completely focused on controlling the browser behavior according to the hierarchical Document Object Model (DOM). The top of the DOM window object, representing the entire browser. The sub-objects of window are these: JavaScript, like Java, also frequently uses the special variable this to identify the object itself.


Another significant difference with Java is the usage of data structure literals which are expressed in JSON (JavaScript Object Notation). The JSON map uses this notation
var obj = { "x": 222, "y": "hello" }
We can omit the quotes around the keys in most circumstances, i.e., this is OK:
var obj = { x: 222, y: "hello" }
A map behaves in every way like a JavaScript object, meaning that key access is available both in array-style as obj['x'] and object-member-style as obj.x. JSON notation embraces both (indexed) list and map data structures. The JavaScript Array is effectively a list, and can be created as a literal using the bracket [ ] syntax. Here are some other examples:
var a = [ 12, "hello", 15 ]                      (an array)
var b = { z: [ 22, 33 ] }                        (an object with array value)
var c = [ {x: 12, y: "aa"}, {x: 17, y: "bb"} ]   (an array of objects)
From these we can use the following expressions:
a[2] (=15),  b.z[1] (=33),  c[0].x (=12),  c[1][y] (="bb") 
Beware of using a terminal comma in JSON maps and lists:
{ x: 11, y: 12, }  and  [ 12, "hello", 15, ]
Acceptance of this terminal comma is browser-dependent (IE will typically choke on it).

Installing jQuery

The jQuery home page is:
Running jQuery requires only one JavaScript file. The version used in this document is 1.11.1 and the file used is this (which can be downloaded from the link):
This file is in the minified form, as identified by the presence of the ".min" in the file name. The jquery file is also available in normal form, jquery-1.11.1.js. The minified form, compared to the normal form, has all possible whitespace characters removed from it making it unreadable, but making it download faster. Furthermore, web servers can compress and transmit this minified file in a format which modern browsers can accept. Here is the comparison:
full (v.1.11.1) jQuery file: 276.1 KB
minified (v.1.11.1) jQuery file: 93.5 KB
compressed, minified (v.1.11.1) jQuery file:   32.4 KB
In general, you would make this file available from your site, perhaps in a dedicated script directory named js. Loading the jQuery file requires the script tag like this:
<script type="text/javascript" src="js/$jquery_js"></script>
An alternative is to use the file hosted on Google using this:
<script type="text/javascript" 

jQuery Plugins

A jQuery plugin is simply a jQuery-based JavaScript file which extends the functionality of jQuery by adding other general features. Often such plugins also require additional support CSS files. Once loaded, the plugin functionality is activated by one or more lines of additional jQuery code statements which activate functions defined in the plugin.

jQuery Preliminaries

The jQuery package has the advantage of being usable without having to modify the HTML and so jQuery JavaScript code can be introduced through script sections and external script files and avoid the insertion of JavaScript code into the element handler attributes (onclick, onsubmit, onchange, etc). For this reason, the jQuery-based JavaScript files can often be loaded just before the end of the body tag, making the script loading concurrent with the browser's application of style rules to the document, and thereby reducing the latency of the web page loading.

jQuery employs these special JavaScript variables and makes them into jQuery entities using the $(..) wrapper. In particular, the heart of jQuery code uses the structure:
  function() {
What is being expressed is that, when the document is ready, call the function to effect certain actions within. JavaScript and client-side toolkits make heavy usage of anonymous functions which do something when an event takes place.

The "$" used is actually the special jQuery object from which everything else is based. This seems odd, but $ is actually a legal identifier character in JavaScript, and thus $ by itself is a legal identifier, along with $x, x$, $x$y, etc. In general you should avoid $ and stick to letters, digits and underscores for variable names.

When jQuery is loaded, $ is synonymous with the variable jQuery, and so we could just as well use the following:
  function() {
However, we'll see that "$" is used very frequently and so serves as a great notational convenience.

The jQuery activation region is usually written in this compact code style:
$(document).ready(function() {
It may look a bit too compact, but the crunched syntax "})" actually works well with many JavaScript source code formatters and helps to keep the indentation levels lower. The activation region structure syntax can be further simplified as follows:
$(function() {
jQuery code is not confined exclusively to this region. It also can appear, of course, in support functions as well as in window-based event activations like these:
$(window).unload(function() { ...  })
$(window).resize(function() { ...  })


JavaScript event attribute names all start with "on":
onready, onclick, onsubmit, onchange, ...
jQuery simply removes the on prefix, and thus we get
$(document).ready( function() { ... } )
which is equivalent in pure JavaScript to:
document.onready = function() { ... }
Typical jQuery code assigns event handlers to elements within the document like this:
$(document).ready(function() {
     // code to handle the event on element(s) specified by identifier
In some cases, we can simplify the presentation or reuse the event handler by using a named function. The function definition can occur after the event binding because it is not called at the time it is specified in the event handler. Furthermore, the definition is outside the activation region.
$(document).ready(function() {

function myHandler() {
  // code to handle the event on element(s) specified by identifier

Selecting elements by CSS-style expressions

To use jQuery in its intended manner without the JavaScript event handler attributes, the HTML code must identify that key elements in the same manner that would be done in order to apply style rules to the elements. The most basic identifying attribute is, of course, the id attribute, but any element or group of elements which can "selected" by a style rule, can be acted upon by jQuery code.

An element's id attribute is commonly used in JavaScript in conjunction with the expression:
var elt = document.getElementById("elt_id");
The jQuery equivalent is the expression:
var jquery_elt = $("#elt_id");
The "#elt_id" is actually a perfect choice for the designator because it exactly matches CSS syntax used to identify the element. jQuery makes CSS-style element identification a theme for its usage. For example, using the expression
we can effect changes to all elements in the document which define:
As you would expect, these expressions identify the elements you would expect:
$("h3")                all h3 elements within the document
$("ol.foo li")         all li elements within an <ol class='foo'>...</ol> block

Handling an onclick event

A very common situation is to activate some JavaScript code when the user clicks a button or hyperlink. The way jQuery expresses this is by the code:
$(document).ready(function() {
  $("#clicker_id").click(function() {
The JavaScript onclick event is turned into the jQuery click function. As is done with "onload", the argument passed to the click function is a function which will be executed when the onclick event happens. In the case of hyperlink clicking or form activation through submit buttons, jQuery usually wants to "take control" and so we must prevent the default behavior. This is done very easily by returning a false value from the function:
$(document).ready(function() {
  $("#clicker_id").click(function() {
    return false;  // prevent default behavior

Static vs Dynamic Event Binding

The call
 $(JQUERY_SELECTOR).EVENT(function() {
    /* HANDLER */
represent a static binding, or association, of the EVENT handler function to the the element(s) identified by the JQUERY_SELECTOR in the sense that the association is set when the HTML content is loaded into the browser. An equivalent way to express this association is as follows, using the jQuery bind function:
  $(JQUERY_SELECTOR).bind( "EVENT", function() {
    /* HANDLER */
However, if the HTML content is generated from JavaScript execution, this binding is no longer valid. A stronger, dynamic, binding needs to be established using the jQuery live function like this:
  $(JQUERY_SELECTOR).live( "EVENT", function() {
    /* HANDLER */
It is slightly more costly, because it must be re-checked after each JavaScript modification to the DOM.

Common jQuery operations

jQuery has functions corresponding to all attribute settings in JavaScript. The advantage is that they are easier to use and more consistent than the JavaScript equivalents. For example:
$( ... ).html(...)    // corresponds to ".innerHTML"
$( ... ).val(...)     // corresponds to ".value"
$( ... ).css(...);    // corresponds to ".style" usage
$( ... ).attr(...);   // corresponds to access of any attribute

html and val functions

The html and val functions take one or no arguments with this prescription: The "html" function is used for most block elements with start and end tag pairs: paragraph, header, table cell (td, th), span, div, li, etc. The "val" function applies to all form elements including those which use the value attribute (textfield/password fields, checkboxes, radio buttons and selection lists) as well as the content of textareas, even though textarea uses start and end tag pair.

css and attr functions

The css and attr functions are used with one or two arguments. To set, for example, the background-color property of an element to red, we would do this in pure JavaScript:
document.getElementById("my_elt").style.backgroundColor = "red"
The "backgroundColor" JavaScript property name is an adaptation of the equivalent background-color style property. The transformation is necessary to avoid the misinterpretation of "-" as an operator. In contrast, the jQuery equivalent expresses a more direct usage of CSS properties.
$("#my_elt").css("background-color", "red");
We can use a JSON map to provide multiple style property settings within a single css call, e.g.:
    background-color: "red",
    color: "white",
    font-weight: "bold"
The attr function can be used to get/set any element attribute whatsoever. For example, to disable an element, we would use this:
$("#my_elt").attr("disabled", true);
Used with one argument we could read the current attribute value:
var isDisabled = $("#my_elt").attr("disabled");

Other jQuery functions

jQuery has many, many convenience functions which control the behavior of elements in complex ways, many through controlled animation effects. For example, these:
show/hide              (make elements appear/disappear)
toggle                 (alternatively show/hide)
animate                (change CSS properties in a timed manner)
fadeIn/fadeOut         (make elements appear/disappear through animated fading)
addClass/removeClass   (add/remove a class name to an element)
If you are interested, take a look at the possibilities at http://api.jquery.com/category/effects/.

Iteration over elements

jQuery provides the each operator which permits iteration over any structure with multiple elements, applying a function to each element. For example, it can be used to iterate over a JSON array:
var some_array = [ "hello", "there", "world" ];
$(some_array).each(function(index,value) {
  /* do something with (index,value) of array entry */
This code employs the idea of turning the JavaScript element, some_array into a jQuery object, $(some_array); it is a similar process used in other cases such as the jQuery objects $(document) and $(this). We can also iterate over multiple elements identified through CSS, e.g., given a list of numbers:
<ul id="nums">
we could compute the sum as follows:
var sum = 0;
$("#nums li").each(function(index,value){
  sum += parseInt($(value).html());

jQuery AJAX

jQuery relies on the general $.ajax method:
$.ajax( parameter_map )
The entire set of ajax map keys in the jQuery docs, but these are the most common values: The key elements are these:
  url: ...,
  data: parameter-map,
  success: function(data){ /* data is the content generated from url */ }
The $.ajax activation initiates a server-side call to the url, sending parameters by what is specified in the parameter-map. When the server-side activation is complete, the output generated by the url appears as the parameter data in the success function, and we can use this data to change the content of the webpage through JavaScript code.

Convenience functions

The methods $.get (for GET activations) and $.post (for POST activations) are simplifications of the $.ajax method. For example, the call
$.get( url, parameter-map, function(data){ ... } ); 
is actually this:
 "url":     url,
 "type":    "get",
 "data":    parameter-map,
 "success": function(data){ ... }
Both $.get and $.post accept up to 4 parameters:
$.get( URL, parameter_map, success_function, dataType);
Unnecessary arguments can be dropped or replaced by null, for example, if there are no parameter:
$.get( "some-url", function(data){ /* do something */ })

One very common usage is to have the server pass back structured JavaScript 
information as a JSON object. In order to recognize this 
retrieved data, we could use this type of call:
$.get(URL,params,function(data){/* data is JavaScript*/}, "json")
Again, jQuery provides a convenience function $.getJSON which automatically generates an equivalent to the previous statement more simply:
  function(data) { /* data is JavaScript */ }

jQuery Form Plugin

The jQuery Form plugin provides convenience methods for generating AJAX form activations through jQuery. Its home page is found at http://malsup.com/jquery/form.

The jQuery form plugin offers several convenience functions for AJAX form submission. This plugin is loaded by one JavaScript file (assuming version 3.36.0):
after the main jQuery file has been loaded. To understand what the form plugin functions provide, let us imagine the submission of a form
<form id="some_form" action="SOME_ACTION" method="SOME_METHOD">
 <input name="SOME_NAME" ... />
We could do an AJAX submission of this form as follows:
  url: $("#form").attr("action"),
  data: $("#form").serialize(),   // form's parameters
  type: $("#form").attr("method"),
  success: function(data) { 
    /* whatever we want to do after completion */
The jQuery serialize function captures the form's named parameters with their values as a parameter map. As a convenience, the jquery form plugin simplifies this by automatically capturing the url, data and type values from the form. We can replace this call by the following:
$("#form").ajaxSubmit(function(data) { 
    /* whatever we want to do after completion */
Used in this way, the single parameter is the value of the success function. If we want the return data to be JSON type, then we must rewrite as follows:
  success:function(data) { 
    /* whatever we want to do after completion */
  dataType: "json"
A final step is to set up so that the form is submitted this way when it is submitted. We could do so explicitly as follows:
$("#form").submit(function() {
  $(this).ajaxSubmit(function(data) { 
      /* whatever we want to do after completion */
  return false; // avoid default submission behavior
However, the form plugin gives a simpler way to do so:
$("#form").ajaxForm(function(data) { 
    /* whatever we want to do after completion */
Once again, the single function parameter is the success function. The JSON datatype would reflect change similar to above:
  success: function(data) { 
    /* whatever we want to do after completion */
  dataType: "json"

© Robert M. Kline